Regulation of payments in terms of utility portal raises broad issues of responsibility. According to the points of view, regulation should be entrusted to an independent regulator without any direct interference with the powers, that is, on the contrary, completely eliminate liability in case of multiple management.
What is a utility bill according to the British model of independent industry regulators? Payment of bills is an illustration of the first approach, which, nevertheless, has turned into bureaucratic regulation – to be consumers and users.
The second approach, which is more democratic and is part of multiple subject management, is more difficult to implement and more difficult to implement, since we are talking about detailing the billing information and the stakeholders that will be connected. There are many ways to control public services.
Prompt. Control can be more or less implicit and more or less effective. Distinguish between regulation (determination of the rules of the game) and regulation (arbitration).
The development of an external and independent system of control and payment for utility services is partly due to the desire not to place the system of control over the functioning of the market under the direct responsibility of the executive branch and organize its implementation under the supervision of parliament.
However, the real independence of the regulatory body, whether intersectoral (antitrust) or industry, can be questionable, since, on the other hand, its democratic legitimacy, especially in the long term in the case of structural socio-economic development, which would require other types of economic policy . In the framework of a non-autonomous state-owned enterprise, very closely dependent on the owner and regulating state bodies, some tasks of control and regulation may even be delegated to the enterprise itself.
Each utility portal model has its own advantages and disadvantages, which have been the subject of numerous studies, especially theoretical ones. But in practice, the effectiveness and efficiency of regulation and control will depend, first of all, on the type of market dysfunction that this regulation should resist, and then on the quality of public administration.
Thus, the private enterprise model demonstrates high internal efficiency and profitability, but has a significant lack of information asymmetry between the regulatory body and the operator, and the latter can choose the information and data that it transfers to the regulatory body in accordance with its interests. Information asymmetries also exist within the framework of the public operator, but the problem is less acute, as the culture / ethics of public service is often “rooted” among public sector employees and all actors must work to achieve the same end goal. Thus, the supervisor will have “authority” over the public operator, similar to that of the state oversight of the internal service of its administration.
Control over work with billing information should be supplemented by an assessment, which should not only take a step back from the way the public service was provided to evaluate its result, but also consider options made in the long term. But the question of what needs to be assessed here is still: collective preferences (for example, in favor of local and / or sustainable production methods) or the general interest that is associated with the development of the future, relative investment costs, etc. and therefore concerns “Social need in time”, but whose definition is the subject of a balance of power.
As explained above, it is not easy to define the contours of the utility portal, especially if we consider it broadly in its organic and functional concept. The public utility service is present at all levels of economic life and serves all its agents and entities. Both households and enterprises and the public sector itself — as a citizen, user, client, intermediate or final consumer, etc. — use the utilities, as well as the collective infrastructure and equipment provided by state bodies.
All services for payment and the provision of utilities help citizens to obtain comfortable living conditions and care for the surrounding housing area. Of course, you have to pay for using these services; this allows you to organize such work at the proper level.